Sorcerer Kingdom (魔導国) is a newly founded nation in the New World. It is currently a city-state and land-locked nation. The newly formed nation is ruled by the Sorcerer King, Ainz Ooal Gown, who is attempting to turn his nation into a utopia for all races.
It was an idea born in the mind of the 7th Floor Guardian, Demiurge, after misunderstanding the words of Momonga literally, thinking that he wishes for world domination. After Demiurge shared his epiphany with his fellow NPCs, the denizens of the Great Tomb of Nazarick committed themselves to this false dream of making Momonga, the Overlord of the New World.
Upon arriving in the New World, Nazarick began to quickly expand its influence on foreign territories. Once a territory controlled by Re-Estize Kingdom, Carne Village became loyal to Ainz Ooal Gown after he personally saved them from the Sunlight Scripture and helped improve the village's defenses. Nazarick has also conquered the local demi-human population in the Great Forest of Tob and Great Lake. At the same time however, sparing only those who submitted to Ainz Ooal Gown while killing those who didn't.
Demiurge alongside his Evil Lords, Pleiades, Shalltear, Aura and Mare attacked the Royal Capital of the Re-Estize Kingdom, causing a great battle with the Kingdom and the Adventurer's Guild that later came to be known as the Demonic Disturbance. This was, however, a distraction while Nazarick robbed the Kingdom of its resources and took control of the criminal organization, "Eight Fingers". Demiurge also met the Kingdom's Third Princess, Renner Theiere Chardelon Ryle Vaiself, whom became a spy for Nazarick.
With preparations complete, Demiurge announced Nazarick's goal to all its inhabitants along with a plan for war. Ainz personally traveled to the Baharuth Empire where he met and recruited its strongest magic caster Fluder Paradyne. Fluder then tricked Emperor Jircniv Rune Farlord El Nix into sending four Worker groups into the Great Tomb of Nazarick. As planned, the four worker groups were killed and the 6th Floor Guardians, Aura and Mare were sent to the Empire in retaliation for the invasion.
The Magic Caster of Destroy Arc
- Main article: The Magic Caster of Destroy Arc
After initial talks, Nazarick and the Baharuth Empire form an alliance against their enemy, the Re-Estize Kingdom. Ainz Ooal Gown crowned himself as the Sorcerer King and founded the Sorcerer Kingdom of Nazarick. Preparing for war, Ainz amassed over his army of undead to the Katze Plains. While the army may look small in numbers, it is noted to be powerfully comprised of legendary undead in their ranks. This includes two hundred Death Knights, possibly three hundred Nazarick Guarders of different types and five hundred Soul Eaters for them to ride on as their warhorse.
In the Katze Plains, the Sorcerer King took the first initiative to launch a fatal blow to the enemy's army which shock them to their very core. Thus, Ainz cast a powerful spell targeted towards the Royal Army as promised from the request of Emperor Jircniv. Witnessing how powerful Ainz and the spell used by him, both the Sorcerer Kingdom's ally and enemy were left utterly fearful for their life as his nation alone is strong enough to claim the lives of seventy thousand soldiers.
After the massacre at Katze Plains, Ainz Ooal Gown claimed the fortress city of E-Rantel and its surrounding area. Eventually, Ainz and his army of undead came to pay a visit to the fortess city, but encountered Momon when the adventurer save a child from being executed by Albedo. Upon confronting this adventurer face to face and having a brief conversation with him, the Sorcerer King decided to make Momon as the city's enforcer to suppress any future revolt in the city.
The Ruler of Conspiracy Arc
- Main article: The Ruler of Conspiracy Arc
With the successful formation of the Sorcerer Kingdom and winning a war against the Re-Estize Kingdom, they gained a new territory added to their nation. Thus, E-Rantel, a former territory belonging to the Re-Estize Kingdom now becomes the capital of the Sorcerer Kingdom and was ruled peacefully with no revolts under Ainz's reign since the day of its annexation. The citizens of E-Rantel are living ordinary lives with the Death Knights used as city guards, Elder Liches as public servants, and Soul Eaters are used to pull cargo wagons.
From this moment forward, Ainz stated that his country's sole aim of rebuilding the villages was merely to collect their produce as taxes and dump them into the Exchange Box. This way, the things his citizens produce from the labor they've done would become YGGDRASIL gold coins. Through doing so, Ainz stated that the production of currency can be used to help make the Great Tomb of Nazarick stronger.
Reasonably so, the task of rebuilding the ruined villages destroyed by the Slane Theocracy will be done with second or third sons of a family who did not have their own farm to work. Ainz promised to grant these people a plot of land, and sent them out there. Because they had been attacked in the past, he permitted the Death Knights and Soul Eaters to go with them as bodyguards, ordering them to help the villagers with their farm work and heavy labor.
At the same time, since the undead were on loan by both his country's citizens and traders, Ainz is also planning in the future to collect additional rental fees on them as well as the agreed taxes.
Though, the newly founded nation was, however, not without its own share of problems from within. As it's a non-human nation, no merchants were willing to trade with them. Also, due to the superior fighting prowess of the undead, adventurers have become obsolete, causing the Adventurer's Guild to go into decline. To deal with the latter, Ainz decided to change adventurers into explorers of the unknown, funded financially by the Sorcerer Kingdom. An idea brought up by the Sorcerer King is to create a type of training facility such as a labyrinth filled with Nazarick's POP undead for adventurers to train at. This way, a group of adventurers can delved into it and work together on fighting the undead in live combat before heading out to explore the far-reaches of the unknown.
On the other hand, the Sorcerer Kingdom sent a diplomatic led by Albedo to the Re-Estize Kingdom to open formal relations with each other. While there, she worked with Eight Fingers and manipulated lower-class nobles into becoming supporters for the Sorcerer Kingdom in preparation of annexing the Kingdom. She also ordered Eight Fingers to import large quantities of food to the Sorcerer Kingdom, taking care of the problem of no one trading with it. Albedo stated that the large-scale food production started by the Sorcerer King is already underway. Additionally, the Eight Fingers is now using Ainz's Death Knights as heads of several divisions in their organization and the skeletons that were tasked with handling the mines.
Meanwhile, Ainz traveled to the Baharuth Empire to recruit adventurers for his new Adventurer's Guild. To do so, he challenged and defeated the current Martial Lord, displaying the power of the Sorcerer Kingdom. Ainz also visited Emperor Jircniv, unknowingly intervening and ruining a secret meeting he was having with the Slane Theocracy, preventing the two from forming an alliance against the Sorcerer Kingdom. Afterwards, the Emperor gave up on opposing the Sorcerer Kingdom and requested Ainz to allow the Empire to become its vassal state. Ainz would, however, only accept such a thing if it was done officially.
A short while later, the Sorcerer Kingdom received the Empire's official terms of vassalization. However, Ainz left handling them to Albedo and Demiurge, as he had shifted his focus to Dwarf Kingdom.
The Craftsman of Dwarf Arc
- Main article: The Craftsman of Dwarf Arc
Ainz spoke about all sorts of experiments being carry out in the Sorcerer Kingdom secretly to strengthen Nazarick. Thus far, the Head Librarian and Demiurge are experimenting with the creation of scrolls out of various races. While as for Nfirea and Lizzie, the two are focusing on creating new potions under Ainz's order. On the other hand, Fluder is given the task of managing magic items. With other roles taken by these individuals, Ainz's next objective is to convince the dwarves of Dwarf Kingdom on taking charge over manufacturing rune weapons in the Sorcerer Kingdom.
As he has this objective in mind, Ainz hopes to open up trade relations with the Dwarf Kingdom for the first time during his journey there. One of these beneficial deals he succeeded with the Regency Council is Ainz offering to lend the undead to the dwarves for various purposes. This way, the dwarves could somehow benefit from using the undead as a form of manual labor and military force in return for profits to the Sorcerer Kingdom.
On the other hand, another deal he also promised to the dwarves is by having himself and his servants grant them military aid. The kind of military aid wherein which he helps them with reconquering the ancient capital of Feo Berkana from the Quagoa and the Frost Dragons. To their success, Ainz and his servants have indeed forced the Quagoa and the Frost Dragons out of their capital as promise.
Once they successfully retake the royal capital of the Dwarf Kingdom, the Sorcerer Kingdom was able to make good trade deals with the Dwarves over their runesmiths. Fulfilling their end of the bargain, the Dwarf Kingdom promisingly handed over the runesmiths to the Sorcerer Kingdom. Henceforth, the runesmiths alongside their families ended up migrating to the Sorcerer Kingdom for a living, swearing loyalty to their nation's ruler, Ainz Ooal Gown.
Not only that, as most of the Quagoa were massacred by the Sorcerer King's two aides, the nation began taking in all their remaining survivors under their rule.
Moreover, after the fall of the White Dragon Lord, the Sorcerer Kingdom have also recently subjugated its followers, the Frost Dragons under their rule too. Lupusregina has even said that the frost dragons are currently being used as air freights, aiding the Sorcerer Kingdom with the transportation of goods.
The Paladin of the Holy Kingdom Arc
- Main article: The Paladin of the Holy Kingdom Arc
When the Roble Holy Kingdom's envoys are traveling to the Sorcerer Kingdom, they encountered a flying ghost ship and believes that the flying ship is acting as an aerial patrol, keeping close tabs from above on who attempts to enter their country's territory.
During the Holy Kingdom's exploration throughout E-Rantel, now a domain of the Sorcerer King, they've manage to find many demi-human races together coexisting peacefully alongside humans while they're living side by side together. This includes the Naga working as an immigration official, Frost Giants polishing two statues of the Sorcerer King, dwarves building roadways or buildings through using undead like Skeletons as labor, and so on.
At the same time, the Holy Kingdom's envoys bear witness to some of the Toadmen, Rabbit Men, Lizardmen and Goblins roaming about while Frost Dragons are flying around the city of E-Rantel. Fortunately, human children are still outside playing with each other indicates that they were able to enjoy life the way it is despite the demi-humans living there now. While so, the Adventurer's Guild of the Sorcerer Kingdom is strictly being managed by the Sorcerer King, Ainz himself.
On the other hand, the naga believes that E-Rantel governed by the Sorcerer Kingdom is the most safest city by far than anything he has felt before. He explains the rules put into place by the Sorcerer Kingdom like not treating humans as food and it was forbidden as well as drawing weapons unless the honorary guests did so out of self-defense. Mind control magic is part of the cities' new rules when investigating crimes. Under the Sorcerer King's order, there are residential houses being built by the dwarves for them to live in and also to help non-humans occupy it in the near future when it is fully completed.
According to one Dwarf in particular, using Undead for manual labor greatly lessens the stress of overworking for many races alike. As the undead are easily able to carry out their orders understandably without fatigue, it made the people's living standard better. For starters, the large-scale farming is being conducted with assistance from undead labor. It was the reason why dwarves stated that the food price was cheaper to buy in this country too. The dwarf also stated that tasting the foods and drinks here in the Sorcerer Kingdom is higher in terms of quality than what their homeland, the Dwarf Kingdom have currently possess.
Furthermore, even the naga from stated that as long as the undead remain unprovoked, no tragic incidents like the harm done on humans by them in E-Rantel had transpired since on. Aside from that, prior to envoys of the Holy Kingdom's confrontation with their first encounter of Ainz, it seems apparent that Albedo is handling the position as being the prime minister of the Sorcerer Kingdom.
As the meeting takes place between Holy Kingdom and Sorcerer Kingdom, Ainz declared that his undead minions were used for various purposes in assisting their country's way of life. For starters, this included utilizing the aid of undead in helping their country's citizens with agriculture, tilling fields and security are all applications which they are growing to accept. The undead used by humans from the former slum district in E-Rantel for example, have been using theirs to rebuild and work the fields in ruined villages that are originally abandoned until now.
During the meeting, Remedios requested Ainz to borrow Momon, so he can aid them in liberating the Northern Holy Kingdom from Jaldabaoth and his demi-human army. However, Ainz rejected that thought because he needed Momon to stay in E-Rantel in order to quell the civil unrest brewing here still. Ainz even repeated that statement to Gustav who told him that Jaldabaoth is a threat to all countries, but he pay it no heed as it wasn't his problem to begin with.
Nevertheless, Ainz at first wanted to give them five years in due time to readily assist the Holy Kingdom by then. Though upon hearing more about their situation and taken Albedo's suggestion to heart, he decided to shorten the process by two years which makes it three years from now.
Before the meeting is about to end however, Neia spoke up to Ainz and answering his questions, urging him to send Momon as quick as possible when the very least they could do was wait at least one day for his arrival. Hearing this from Neia, Ainz kindly agreed with her plea and commanded Albedo to shorten those three years down to two years instead and thereafter, the meeting ended peacefully.
Unknown to Albedo and the other NPCs, Ainz decided to do things his own way by covering his tracks and visiting the inn secretly without them knowing. He managed to talk things out with the envoys again in their second meeting within the "Shining Golden Pavilion" inn. What the Sorcerer Kingdom hope to gain from helping the Northern Holy Kingdom is recruiting the demon maids who served Jaldabaoth as a way to strengthen their nation's military strength. In exchange, Ainz will used himself as a leverage to assist the Northern Holy Kingdom in defeating Jaldabaoth alone without needing neither an army or Momon.
In the power structure of the Sorcerer Kingdom, the most important thing wasn't a being's combat power, but the fact of the matter is that one was a creation of the Supreme Beings. The NPCs, which are personal creations of the Supreme Beings were thus, given commands based on a higher level of authority. This was especially the same with NPCs who're handed down the duties of being a Floor Guardian.
Ranked below the NPCs are POP, monsters that are automatically spawned by the mercenary system from within YGGDRASIL. In other words, they form the servant caste. The status of the servants are based on their level and job class, and are not associated in any means with the floor level, where they were spawn from. With the subsequent summoning experiments conducted by Ainz Ooal Gown, numerous permanent undead summons have entered into the service of Nazarick. More so, it seems that some of the undeads were treated with all due respect from the Floor Guardians, since they're a part of Ainz's own creation done by him personally.
To the inhabitants of Nazarick, the former guild members of Ainz Ooal Gown were regarded and treated as gods that deserve their utmost respect, devotion, and undivided attention. For the NPCs however, Ainz’s words mean everything to them and he is ranked higher than any other Supreme Beings by authority-wise with the exception of their creator.
Due to a majority of the denizens living within the tomb are descended from a hierarchy of demi-human and non-human racial backgrounds, humans were primarily seen as an inferior species. Most, but if not all of the creatures in Nazarick almost view humans as another type of specimen, toy or food. Although there do exists some exceptions, who are exempted from this kind of rule, which is generally ignored for a few.
Nazarick inhabitants will usually treat each other with politeness, where one would expect no less from a non-human race. However, the inhabitants were seen to be brutally barbarous to any outsiders who enter their ground as they are quite extremely protective of the tomb itself. Nevertheless, this general policy has been relatively flexible, due to the need of strengthening Nazarick and the advocacy of the upper echelons. For this exact reason, outsiders have been allowed to migrate into the sacred tomb, so to militarize and assimilate their general population from Nazarick with the native demi-humans and non-humans in the New World. At first, non-human species that were discovered in the New World were tolerated, but it is mostly due to kinship and the original membership policy decreed by the Supreme Beings.
On the other hand, upon seeing that more could actually be gained from incorporating conquered races rather than destroying them, Nazarick decided to alter its policy and allowed in other races such as demi-humans entry. While accepted into the non-human nation, they are still considered to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy. Despite this, the subservient races are given a fair share of protection and welfare for their benefit, when living under the dominion of Nazarick.
All denizens living within the Great Tomb of Nazarick worship and idolize the Forty-One Supreme Beings as gods though with the exception of few newcomers like Tsuare. This is also the same for several NPCs such as the Pleiades, Floor Guardians, and Area Guardians who were created by them. An NPC's loyalty will sometimes remain with one's Supreme Being to the extent in which their creator's well-being is placed above all else than the rest. Therefore, the NPC created by them will without a doubt rebel and fight against the other Supreme Beings if they were ordered to do so according to their creator's wishes.
Even though almost the entirety of the Forty-One Supreme Beings have vanished, the NPCs still hold memories of them dearly, relying on them for moral support. As Momonga is the last of the Forty-One Supreme Beings who hasn't abandoned them yet, thus all of the NPCs in Nazarick continue to stay faithful to him and their creators. Commonly, most of the NPCs in Nazarick would find their very task pleasing due to the presence of Ainz being the only Supreme Being left to give them an order to do something that is utmost an honor and a reward requested by him.
Items once owned by the Supreme Beings are regarded as holy relics, as they are physical links to their patron gods. Ainz Ooal Gown uses such items as a way to instill loyalty and gratitude towards his subjects. In a recent turn of events, a cult of worship revolving around Ainz Ooal Gown has slowly taken shape among the conquered lizardmen tribes.
The highest authority in the Sorcerer Kingdom is the Sorcerer King, Ainz Ooal Gown, the Last Supreme Being of Nazarick.
There is very little political activity amongst the Floor Guardians, though they do engage in friendly competition and joint ventures, depending on the present situation. When establishing connections like trade with other nations, some diplomatic measures were mostly handled by Demiurge or Albedo as Overseer of the Floor Guardians. While Pandora's Actor however, plays the role as Momon over at E-Rantel and hears out people's opinion about the Sorcerer King, Ainz Ooal Gown and his way of ruling.
Common ideals that the Sorcerer Kingdom promotes are self-sufficiency, practicality and egalitarianism. Any new territory or subjects must be necessary for the continued existence and upkeep of the greater whole of the Kingdom. Those that show the efforts of their hard work are rewarded, but those that do otherwise or harm are abandoned. All submitted races are equal under the reign of Sorcerer King and guaranteed their prosperity.
The majority of inhabitants living inside the Great Tomb of Nazarick are different non-human species that are known to possess monstrous abilities that surpass humans and demi-humans. The strongest NPC of Nazarick is said to be even more powerful than any member of Ainz Ooal Gown if one doesn't have a World Item to defeat it.
Sorcerer Kingdom is led by the last Supreme Being: the "Sorcerer King" Ainz Ooal Gown, who has possession of eleven World Items within his arsenal for the Floor Guardians to use. Ainz Ooal Gown's army outside of Nazarick is a force that consists of Death Knights, Soul Eaters, and numerous types of undead guards. Even within the special ranks of Nazarick, there are subdivisions of social classes such as the Floor Guardians, Area Guardians, Pleiades, etc since they're created by the Forty-One Supreme Beings.
Utilizing Shalltear's spell as "Gate" for transportation, Ainz was able to send over and largely amass an army of one thousand undead soldiers to the Katze Plains under his command. Ainz's undead army is primarily composed of two hundred Death Knights, three hundred Death Warriors, and five hundred Soul Eaters for them to mount with. It was said by one of the Slane Theocracy's cardinals that Ainz Ooal Gown's military forces are assumed to be equivalent to 500 small countries, which can destroy a nation by themselves.
Other than an army of Soul Eaters, Death Knights, and Death Warriors, Ainz Ooal Gown's main stead military force is composed of the Nazarick Old Guarders and their related species. It is unknown what their exact numbers are, but the Kingdom was able to field around six thousand of the Guarders in a matter of days during the conquest of the Great Lake.
The Sorcerer Kingdom is the newest nation in the New World. Though the territory it compromises is small as well as its population, the nation is continuously growing in strength, with each new conquest and acquisition of resources. In the first months of its emergence, it has already gained a reputation of having the strongest military might in the region and is hence feared by all neighboring countries.
Currently, the Re-Estize Kingdom and the Sorcerer Kingdom are at odds with one another due to territorial disputes. Prior to this, relations between Nazarick and the Kingdom were not so hostile. In the beginning of Nazarick's explorations of the New World, the Kingdom was the first nation that was encountered. Ainz Ooal Gown himself saved and befriended its strongest warrior, Gazef Stronoff.
After several months of infiltrating the Kingdom, the hierarchy of Nazarick sadly decided that the Kingdom offered no appeal, deeming it to be the weakest of the neighboring human nations. Operations in the Kingdom only continued due to its use in bolstering Ainz's active career as an adventurer, Momon the Dark Hero. However, the non-human nation later allied with the Empire to fight against the Kingdom in their annual war, with the end result in the destruction of the Royal Army and the near political collapse of the Re-Estize Kingdom. The two kingdoms opened formal relations to better understand each other, though it is only a matter of time before the Sorcerer Kingdom invades the human nation.
The Baharuth Empire is an allied nation of the Sorcerer Kingdom. It was the first human nation to make official contact with Nazarick, after Count Femel's workers intentionally invaded the sacred tomb. It faced annihilation by just two of Nazarick's Floor Guardians, though the situation has defused thanks to the cooperation of the Bloody Emperor. While the Empire seems to have negotiated a truce with Nazarick, in actuality its emperor is scheming the downfall of Nazarick after seeing the potential dangers of a non-human state so close to the human nations. Under this ruse of peace, the Empire has formally recognized Sorcerer Kingdom of Nazarick.
After the Massacre at Katze Plains, the Empire was so demoralized by the sheer power of the Sorcerer King and was bereft of any potential allies to form a coalition against Ainz Ooal Gown that it totally submitted to the Sorcerer Kingdom, becoming a vassal state.
Though there existed several unofficial skirmishes between the two powers, the Sorcerer Kingdom of Nazarick and the Slane Theocracy have yet to establish any real political relations. By chance, a war will likely erupt between the two powers as the mere thought of the Sorcerer Kingdom being a non-human state is intolerable towards a nation like Slane Theocracy who supports human supremacy. Due to this belief, some denizens from Nazarick such as Albedo herself truly believes that the Theocracy is considered to be one of the greatest threats to their nation.
However, with annual war happening between the Empire and the Kingdom, the Theocracy has come to mutual terms and declared neutrality against Sorcerer Kingdom refusing to participate.
In punctuality, the Theocracy are very wary of the new nation and are coming up with countermeasures in order to defend itself. And as of the moment, they have sent infiltrators from the Clearwater Scripture in order to gain more concrete information within E-Rantel concerning the city's situation. However, for the moment, they decided not to peruse a full confrontation with the Sorcerer Kingdom. The primarily reasons are due to the nation currently facing a war with the elves as well as having no additional forces to send for another full scale war.
While Sorcerer Kingdom and the Dwarf Kingdom have not yet interacted with each other, Ainz Ooal Gown has taken an interest in the weapons that the nation produces. With the vassalization of the Empire and the Kingdom's annexation underway, the Sorcerer Kingdom switched it's focus to the Dwarf Kingdom.
The Sorcerer Kingdom sent out an expedition to the Dwarf Kingdom and had made its way to Feo Raizo, under the guidance of Zenberu Gugu. The delegation found the city to be abandoned, but discovered a lone dwarf who explained the nation's plight under the Quagoa attacks. The Sorcerer King wanting to establish friendly relations with the dwarves and learn the secrets of their runecraft agreed to offer military support.
There was a plan made to allow citizens of both countries to migrate freely between them.
Before the founding of the Sorcerer Kingdom, Demiurge was send to the Holy Kingdom to collect information. Demiurge seems to have developed an interest with the Holy Kingdom, as he originally intended to stage the "Demonic Disturbance" there.
After the founding of the Sorcerer Kingdom, Demiurge once again visited the Holy Kingdom to further collect information. After the Sorcerer Kingdom finished its business with the Dwarf Kingdom, Demiurge began to set his plans into motion using his Jaldabaoth persona.
Despite its unholy constitution, the Holy Kingdom recognized the Sorcerer Kingdom as a sovereign country. While majority of its citizens were disgusted by the idea of an undead ruling a nation, the Kingdom still allowed merchants the access to free travel and trade with the Sorcerer Kingdom.
Before the founding of the Sorcerer Kingdom, Ainz Ooal Gown wanted to learn more about the Argland Council State, but was ultimately unable to send any spies due to Nazarick being understaffed.
The Sorcerer King Ainz Ooal Gown has heard of the City-State Alliance, but the nation currently has no plans of making contact with it as of now.
- Ainz Ooal Gown used his Guild's banner as the official flag of the Sorcerer Kingdom.
- Like the Eight Greed Kings, the Sorcerer Kingdom is attempting for world domination.
- The Sorcerer Kingdom seems to be considered an existential threat among its neighboring human countries such as the Slane Theocracy and Roble Holy Kingdom.
- Demiurge theorized the ideal strategy of Ainz spreading the undead around must surely be to encourage the other nations to rely on the Sorcerer Kingdom rather than viewing their army of undead as a threat.
- Among various possibilities of how to run the Sorcerer Kingdom and the aim of ruling E-Rantel, Ainz thought of:
- By farming wheat and the like, and tossing them into the Treasury’s Exchange Box, he could obtain coins which could be used to strengthen the Great Tomb of Nazarick. The country would then become one whose sole aim was to produce currency.
- He could breed and slaughter humans, thus, making the country produce experience points which would be stored within the World Item, Avarice and Generous.
- He could hand over all production tasks and work to the undead, making it a country where the living did not need to work.